Junipero Serra was the founder of California. Junípero Serra was a Franciscan priest, who was canonized in 2015 for his dedication and service to his religion. Serra’s recommended provision was eventually incorporated into California’s first legal code, the Echeveste Reglamento of 1773. Most importantly, he brought thousands of natives into the fold of Holy Mother Church and therefore saved many souls. We actually wrote in English and in Spanish the one-page biography on Serra that will appear in the program. 4.0 out of 5 stars Good introductory biography of Serra, his work, and its impact Reviewed in the United States on January 29, 2018 For the two-hundreth anniversary of the death of Fray Junipero Serra, Msgr. A special mass was held at the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington, D.C. on September 23. Junípero Serra was a Franciscan priest, who was canonized in 2015 for his dedication and service to his religion. A short biography: Saint Serra was born Miguel Jose Serra 24 November 1713 at Petra on the Island of Majorca. In 1749, Serra took on a new challenge—bringing his faith to the New World as a missionary. Saint Junipero Serra Born at Petra, Majorca, Spain, November 24, 1713, a son of Antonio Nadal Serra and Margarita Rosa Ferrer who spent their lives as farmers, Junípero Serra was baptized on the same day at St. Peter’s Church and was given the name Miguel José. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. He is buried in the mission’s church. St. Junípero Serra fought to protect my ancestors — and bring them the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Junípero Serra did not become a saint because he founded missions in California. St. Junipero Serra was a friend and dedicated father to the natives. He was the pathbreaking, indestructible priest who trekked California’s mountains, valleys, deserts, and shores to found nine of its eventual twenty-one missions. Francis J. Weber wrote a long series of articles for California diocesan newspapers about the life and times of the California missionary. Save us from every danger, glorious and blessed Virgin.” The prayer to St. Michael the Archangel: “St. Born on November 24, 1713, on the Spanish island of Majorca, Junipero Serra came from humble beginnings. public domain. His advocates claim that he was a strenuous defender of the Indians and introduced to their lands the cattle, sheep, grains, and fruits of Mexico. In that account, we speak of the War of Independence, the establishment of the American republic, and prominent founding fathers like George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. Father Serra died at his headquarters, the Carmel mission, in 1784 when he was 70. The head of the cause said, “Okay, you’ve got a 500-page book. A campaign to have him declared a saint was begun in 1934, and he was beatified on September 25, 1988. Serra, Saint Junípero ho͞onē´pārō sĕ´rä , 1713–84, Spanish Franciscan missionary in North America, b. Majorca. For his proficiency in studies he was appointed lector of philosophy before his ordination to the priesthood. (Frederic J. Brown/AFP/Getty Images) St. Junipero Serra. Embroiled in some controversy due to the interpretation of historical facts, Saint Junipero Serra was canonized by Pope Francis on the steps of the Basilica of the Immaculate Conception in Washington, DC, on September 23, 2015. He volunteered for the Sierra Gorda missions in 1751, which were located in the lands of Pame Indians. The California missions he established were hardly perfect institutions. Be our defense against the wickedness and snares of the devil. According to USA Today, Valentin Lopez, chair of the Amah Mutsun Tribal Band, expressed his outrage in a letter to California governor Jerry Brown, writing “Canonizing Junipero Serra effectively condones and celebrates his use of imprisonment and torture to convert California Indians to Christianity.”. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! Father Serra was born Miguel Jose Serra on November 24, 1713, at Petra on the island of Mallorca in Spain. Corrections? Serra as Founding Father? He died 28 August 1784 and is buried at the mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo.On 14 September 1730 he entered the Franciscan Order. Standing on the site of Serra’s former missionary headquarters, the pope reflected on the … Serra established nine missions there from 1769 to 1782. St. Junípero Serra was an ardent defender of native rights against the abuses of Spanish colonists. On 14 September 1730 he entered the Franciscan Order. In 1750 he arrived in Mexico City for missionary work among the Indians, serving first in the Sierra Gorda missions from 1750 to 1758 and then in south-central Mexico from 1758 to 1767. Jorge Mario Bergoglio was elected the 266th pope of the Roman Catholic Church in March 2013, becoming Pope Francis. Mother Teresa was the founder of the Order of the Missionaries of Charity, a Roman Catholic congregation of women dedicated to helping the poor. Serra preached to the native people and sought ways to improve the area's economy. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Experts estimate it was sometime between 1737 and 1739. Junipero Serra was born in Petra, a village on Majorca in the Balearic Islands. Essay: Why I Want to be Confirmed – 9/27 3. Listen to our prayers and help us in our needs. They had him baptized on his first day in the world, giving him the name Miguel Jose. Spanish missionary Juniper Serra established his first U.S. mission in 1769. For 15 years he taught philosophy in the college at Palma. Junipero Serra was declared a saint in 2015. He is the first pope from the Americas. The Franciscan way surrounded his childhood and soon became his own way of life. Moving further north, he founded another mission in San Diego, first of nine missions he created in what is present-day California, that July. Work in the Americas. Ordained in 1737, he taught philosophy and theology at the University of Padua until 1749. Demand that religious freedom guaranteed in the U.S. Constitution be protected. He died in 1784. The statue of St. Junipero Serra is the latest to be either defaced or forcibly removed by people protesting against monuments that depict the country's colonial and racist past. special to crux; A statue of Father Junipero Serra at Mission San Juan Bautista. St. Junípero Serra Born at Petra, Island of Majorca, 24 November, 1713; died at Monterey, California, 28 August, 1784. 1955), is the best known of the Serra biographies, available in several editions and translations. As statues of St. Junípero Serra continue to be vandalized in the United States, a Spanish bishop defended the evangelizer of California in the place where the 18 th century Franciscan saint was baptized.. Bishop Sebastià Taltavull of Majorca visited the shrine of Petra on Tuesday, to mark the patronal feast of St. Praxedis, a second century Roman martyr. His parents, Antonio Nadal Serra and Margarita Rosa Ferrer, spent their lives working the land in the town of Petra. St. Junipero Serra. Cesar Aguirre was … Saint Junipero Serra died in Monterey, California, Aug. 28, 1784. ", In 2015, Pope Francis made Junipero Serra a saint during his first visit to the United States. (Frederic J. Brown/AFP/Getty Images) However, there is an older story involving other founding fathers which took place in the West. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); Subscribe to the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. Junipero Serra Bioagraphy Born at Petra, Majorca, Spain, November 24, 1713, a son of Antonio Nadal Serra and Margarita Rosa Ferrer who spent their lives as farmers, Junípero Serra was baptized on the same day at St. Peter's Church and was given the name Miguel José. On 14 September, 1730, he entered the Franciscan Order. For his proficiency in studies he was appointed lector of philosophy before his ordination to the priesthood. Her refusal to agree to an annulment of their marriage led to the creation of the Church of England. Some may find it incongruous to compare the achievements of St. Junípero Serra with those of the founding fathers. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Saint-Junipero-Serra, Eternal Word Television Network - Biography of St. Junipero Serra, Public Broadcasting Service - Biography of Junipero Serra, Architect of the Capitol - Biography of Junipero Serra, United States Conference of Catholic Bishops - Biography of Junipero Serra, The Museum of the City of San Francisco - Biography of Father Junipero Serra, Spartacus Educational - Biography of Junipero Serra, Archdiocese of Los Angeles - St. Junipero Serra: Biography, Travels, Legacy, Canonization, Junípero Serra - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Saint Junípero Serra - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Junipero Serra spent his early career as a Franciscan educator in Palma, Spain. Today he is revered as the Patron Saint … ", Not everyone was pleased with the pope's decision to grant Serra sainthood, however. He was in his thirties when he heeded the call to become a missionary. A short biography: Saint Serra was born Miguel Jose Serra 24 November 1713 at Petra on the Island of Majorca. 1. The patron saint of missionaries and one of the founders of the Jesuit order, Saint Francis Xavier sought religious converts throughout Asia during the 1500s. He was granted sainthood in 2015. Serra then became a novice at the Convento de Jesus in September 1730. Junípero Serra y Ferrer (November 24, 1713 – August 28, 1784) was a Franciscan friar most well known for founding the first 9 California missions. Third, contact your elected officials and say enough is enough! Considered one of the 20th Century's greatest humanitarians, she was canonized as Saint Teresa of Calcutta in 2016. The Philippines are named after him. Serra was only 15 years old when he decided to join the priesthood. Updates? The head of the cause said, “Okay, you’ve got a 500-page book. Kerry Walters offers a brief portrait of this fascinating man—our newest saint—and the times he lived in. In 2015 he became the first saint of the Roman Catholic Church to be canonized in the United States. Spanish missionary efforts came to an end in the early 19th century, and their record was one of mixed success at best. Saint Barbara did, and it turned out that on her feast day, December 4, at night, the ship sailed back toward port, and all felt happy and confident. Saint Junípero Serra. He traveled first to Mexico with a former student, Francisco Palóu. Saint Katharine Drexel used her personal fortune to fund schools for Native Americans and African Americans. In 1768, Serra became head of the missionaries in Baja California, and started the first and only Franciscan mission there. This service marked the country's first canonization. United States of America, September 23, 2015 (ZENIT) The US bishops' conference provides this biography of St. Junípero Serra: Born at Petra, Majorca, Spain, November 24, 1713, a son of Antonio Nadal Serra and Margarita Rosa Ferrer who spent their lives as farmers, Junípero Serra was baptized on the same day at St. Peter’s Church and was given the name Miguel José. While he advocated on behalf of native peoples, Serra also sought to correct them when they broke the rules as well. Serra died in Carmel on August 28, 1784. The next year, Jose de Gálvez, the Spanish inspector-general decided to explore, establish presidios and found missions in Alta California, the area which is now the stat… When Spain began its occupation of Alta California (present-day California), Serra joined the expedition’s commander, Gaspar de Portolá. He died 28 August 1784 and is buried at the mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo. Saint Junipero Serra: Making Sense of the History and Legacy (English Edition) eBook: Clifford, Christian: Amazon.it: Kindle Store Serra’s legacy has been distorted. After his death, Serra was remembered for his dedication to his faith and for bringing Catholicism to California. St. Junípero Serra, (born November 24, 1713, Petra, Majorca, Spain—died August 28, 1784, Carmel, California, New Spain [now in U.S.]; canonized September 23, 2015; feast day August 28 (July 1 in the U.S.)), Spanish Franciscan priest whose missionary work among the Indians of North America earned him the title of Apostle of California. On September 23, 2015, he was canonized as a saint by Pope Francis I in a special mass in Washington, D.C. Serra was a renowned figure in his lifetime. But his role in California's colonization via the mission system makes him a target for statue toppling. Francisco Franco led a successful military rebellion to overthrow Spain's democratic republic in the Spanish Civil War, subsequently establishing an often brutal dictatorship that defined the country for decades. On September 23, 2015, he was canonized as a saint by Pope Francis I in a special mass in Washington, D.C. Serra was a renowned figure in his lifetime. He was a teacher of philosophy in Spain and Mexico in the 1740s. Here's a biography of the saint, and this stained glass window is in Baltimore Cathedral. First he worked to spread the word of God in Mexico in 1750s and 1760s before moving to present-day California. But they did not win. Omissions? Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. In Sacramento on July 4, vandals attempted to burn the likeness of St. Junípero Serra before pulling it down and dancing on the fallen statue. When he joined the order, he changed his name to … On July 16, 1769, he founded Mission San Diego, the first within the present state of California. Michael the Archangel, defend us in battle. French missionary and explorer Jacques Marquette is best known as the first European to see and map the northern portion of the Mississippi River. "Junipero Serra is a great example for Catholics. He was in his thirties when he heeded the call to become a missionary. According to the Franciscan Friars, Province of Saint Barbara's website, Serra's first nine missions were home to more than 4,600 converted Native Americans and more than 6,700 Native Americans had been baptized through the missions by the end of 1784. Standing on the site of Serra’s former missionary headquarters, the pope reflected on the … Junipero Serra was declared a saint in 2015. Serra spent the rest of his life devoted to his evangelical work in the region. Further Reading on Junípero Serra. Who is Saint Junípero Serra? 10) Saint Junípero Serra was canonized September 23, 2015 at the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington, D.C. Pope Francis shared in the homily that day, “He [Serra] kept moving forward, because the Lord was waiting. Statues of Saint Junípero Serra deserve to stay A statue of Saint Junípero Serra in front of the San Gabriel Mission in San Gabriel, Calif., on June 21. He supported the use of corporal punishment for offenses. Serra was born Miquel Josep Serra i Ferrer (this name is Catalan, in Castilian it is Miguel José Serra Ferrer) in the village of Petra on the island of Mallorca in the Balearic Islands off the Mediterranean coast of Spain. Miguel Jose Serra was born on the island of Majorca on November 24, 1713, and took the name of Junipero when in 1730, he entered the Franciscan Order. Although adulatory, the work by Serra's friend and companion Francisco Palóu, Life of Fray Junípero Serra (1787; trans. He moved to Palma to pursue his goal. St. Junípero Serra, (born November 24, 1713, Petra, Majorca, Spain—died August 28, 1784, Carmel, California, New Spain [now in U.S.]; canonized September 23, 2015; feast day August 28 (July 1 in the U.S.)), Spanish Franciscan priest whose missionary work among the Indians of North America earned him the title of Apostle of California. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. He dedicated his life to the mission of evangelization, to bringing the good news of the Gospel to America. Beginning in the 1940s, a movement began to have him canonized. Born in a farming family in the island of Majorca, he later came to be known as the founding father of California. Saint Junipero Serra Miguel Jose Serra knew early in his life that the Catholic Faith was of great importance. found: Dictionary of American Catholic Biography, ©1984: pages 520-521 (Serra, Junípero, missionary; b. Nov. 24, 1713 at Petra on the island of Majorca, Spain. One year before he beatified Fray Junípero Serra in 1988, St. John Paul II made a pilgrimage to the grave of the Franciscan priest at Mission San Carlos Borroméo in Carmel, Calif. A special mass was held at the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington, D.C. on September 23. During the late 1750s into the 1760s, Serra played many different roles at the College of San Fernando. A word of recognition and of … Along the way, he suffered an injury to his leg, which would cause him pain the rest of his days. In 1742, he earned his doctorate in theology from Lullian University. The exact date of his ordination into the priesthood is unknown. 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