Lessons Encountered. It explores the concept of insurgency as well the objectives it is focused on, interrogating the traditional and modern terrorist insurgencies and drawing a distinction between counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism. âHis military acumen, ability to devise asymmetrical anti-terrorism warfare strategies, and bringing together unruly groups to work together were unmatched,â Entessar tells the Tehran Times. 24 May, 2016. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/03/terrorism-in-europe-at-historical-high/,  ‘Is terrorism in Europe at an historical high?’,  There are four ‘types’ of ‘lone-wolf’ attackers and for the purpose of this essay it is the second ‘type’ that is of most interest here. Although the word is used regularly, and although we know an act of terror when we see it, it is best to define the concept. February 14, 2001 Describes the threat and effect of asymmetric and terrorist attacks using chemical weapons. There is a wide spectrum of potential threats to the U.S. homeland that do not involve overt attacks by states using long-range missiles or conventional military forces. http://www.history.com/topics/enlightenment,  ‘Positivism’ was founded by Auguste Comte and is concerned with positive facts outweighing speculation. Existentialism was, and remains a response to previous intellectual pursuits of reason and rationale. Chapter 2 explores the terms insurgency and terrorism as objectives forms of asymmetric warfare. See: ‘Definition of Eurocentric.’ Merriam-Webster. Contemporary global security environment and concrete forms of asymmetric security threats such as extremism, terrorism, organized crime, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Red-Army-Faction. https://www.europeaninstitute.org/index.php/167-european-affairs/ea-january-2013/1683-mali-the-french-way-of-war; The Saudi Arabia government ‘promised bin Laden that the foreigners would leave as soon as the [1991 Gulf] war was over.  ‘Kenya’s Westgate shopping mall reopens after tragedy.’ BBCNews. When practiced outside the laws of war, it is often defined as terrorism, though rarely by its practitioners or their supporters. There are no comments yet, but you can be first to comment this article. Eight Recent Champions of the Just War Tradition, 9. A drawing together of existentialism and terrorism is now able to be made. See: Cindy Combs. What Kind of Peace Should America Seek in our War-Torn Era? â¦ The fifth model, and the one I prefer, is the family-resemblance approach which foregoes tight definitions in favor of more empirical and contextual treatments of specific manifestations of terrorism. In the modern context, asymmetric warfare is increasingly considered a component of fourth generation warfare.  The number of fatalities, however, does not adequately reflect the overarching perception of the terrorist threat, as the aim of a terrorist or group, is to instill fear in the populace. The existential nature of a terrorist attack is equally able to be applied to a small group or an ‘army’ such as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria as the decision-making and homogenization components are similar. The West, usually through the mechanisms of the United Nations, persistently fails abysmally in its problem-solving. The form of attack, the use of vehicles against the populace has become more frequent and this is because terrorists in the tactical- and kinetic-phase of a low-intensity operation require simplicity, opportunism and vulnerability of the target. Liberal-democracy, good governance; fair and equal elections, rule-of-law; the illegality of exogenous actors challenging the authority of the State; and transparent government is to name only several components that have been re-asserted as appropriate governance.  Edward Said. Acknowledging that there are slight variations to the thematic definitions of what it is to be an ‘existentialist’ and to involve oneself in ‘existentialism,’ is dependent upon which scholarly practice and interpretation is applied. Seven All-Stars of the Just War Tradition, 8. Misunderstanding Terrorism. How Do Just War Principles Apply to Drone Warfare? Existentialism. Praise be to Allah…. The “Founding Fathers” of the Just War Tradition, 7. Few talk today about the âGlobal War on Terrorism,â and few should. the historical context of manifestation and the development of asymmetrical forms of security threats and the asymmetric war as a specific phenomenon. In terms of agency, acts of terror can be carried out by state or non-state actors, but in our contemporary era are usually carried out by non-state actors. This is writ large in the following observation, The American tradition [of fighting wars and of intervention] also tends to neglect the lesson, learned repeatedly in dozens of twentieth-century wars, that the only way to defeat an insurgency campaign is not to attack the enemy but instead to protect and win over the people.. In the modern context, asymmetric warfare is increasingly considered a component of fourth generation warfare. The fundamental variance in the two concepts broadly-speaking is that empiricism is a theory of knowledge that comes from experience from which one makes a decision, whereas existentialism defaults to an individual being able to make decisions free from historical and social constraints—regardless of the processes involved a decision is able to be made. The type of conflict varies widely; historical examples include: Secession of a territory to form a new â¦ The tradition developed to help control conventional warfare, but it is no less applicable to the terrorism and asymmetrical warfare prevalent in contemporary conflicts. For that reason, before we apply just war principles to terrorism and asymmetrical warfare, we will reflect on what it is that causes us to call a particular person or group of people âterrorists.â London: Pengion Books, 1978, 94. The group was also involved in kidnapping and assassinations and had at least 22 core members. See: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/existentialism?fallbackFrom=essential-british-english. New York: Routledge, 2002, 94. Your donations allow us to invest in new open access titles and pay our ‘Is terrorism an existential threat?’ The Counterterrorism Yearbook 2017. An example of this can be traced to the Gulf War (1990- 1991), in which Osama bin Laden, (and his Al-Qaeda followers) did not approve of Saddam’s military forces invading Kuwait, however, Bin Laden’s greatest objections were the US’ maintenance of the Saudi Arabian monarchy; the monarchy’s continuing subjugation of Islam’s holiest land; and the deployment of US troops on Islam’s holy Saudi Arabian soil to fight a fellow Arab state. The War for Muslim Minds. The followers it is safe to argue, embrace relevant political and cultural ideologies of the group, which in ideologies in turn ‘drive the actions’ and this relates to lone-wolf as well as group actors. Notwithstanding the carnage the number of fatalities from terrorist attacks 2000-2015 decreased compared to previous decades. Global Terrorism. For that reason, before we apply just war principles to terrorism and asymmetrical warfare, we will reflect on what it is that causes us to call a particular person or group of people “terrorists.”, Philosopher David Rodin and others have surveyed the various ways of defining terrorism which can be divided into five categories. There are two different viewpoints on the relationship between asymmetric warfare and terrorism. The West is so spellbound with âThe War on Terrorâ that people see terrorists in every airport, every café and in every mosque. The FLN caused constant disruptions through the use of tactical ‘pin pricks’ … [consisting of] ‘small, highly trained packets [of guerrillas] … [randomly] shelling and mortaring [French] units … a hand grenade thrown into a café here, a burst of machine gun fire on the beach there.’ These tactics then, as now, comprise an overall disruptive strategy that is designed to take advantage of small hit-and-run tactics; terrify the public; stretch government authorities and their allies’ to an absolute limit; and exhaust government and governance capabilities. Suicide Terrorism. 8 Jan, 2015. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-01-08/paris-newspaper-attack-mapped/6006110. UCLANews. Learning from the Long War.  The context in which terrorist tactics are used is often a large-scale, unresolved political conflict. It is through the use of persistent minor lethal disruptions from which strategic- and political-advantage is gained. British forces in Syria, US forces in Iraq and US and Australian forces in Afghanistan are three locations which have presented targets for exogenous actors. Oxon: Routledge, 2013, 51. Yet, the challenge to build a consistently effective and ethical counterterrorism is one that we must meet, and continue to meet, as new and extreme iterations of terrorism emerge. Existentialism. However, Grandmaster Shifuji Shaurya Bhardwaj made history by becoming the Worldâs youngest inventor of the Deadliest customised counter-terrorism, customised counter insurgency system and customised Urban Warfareâ¦ In this post we’ve tried to define terrorism as clearly as possible in order to highlight why and in what ways it violates principles of just war. Fourth, object-focused definitions focus on the target of terrorism, the deliberate or reckless use of force against noncombatants. An action that the West nevertheless, persists in following. On the other hand, some commentators classify counterterrorism as a type of police action with the terrorist classed as an armed and dangerous criminal who nonetheless is subject to due legal process. ‘Red Army Faction.’ The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. Why I am a Proponent of the Just War Tradition, 6. Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentional violence for political or religious purposes. See: John Barry. See: https://www.hrw.org/tag/philippines-war-drugs. Terrorists regularly fail to respect a number of the criteria for deciding whether or not to go to war (jus ad bellum): just cause, legitimate authority, right intent, right spirit, and probability of success: Terrorists also often fail to meet many of the criteria for justice during warfare (jus in bello): discrimination, right intent, and right spirit: In response to this systematically and aggressively unjust form of violence, we must craft an effective and ethical counterterrorism. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. Donations are voluntary and not required to download the e-book - your link to download is below.  Eric Margolis. 0704-0188 Public reporting â¦ Allah Most High has struck America in its most vulnerable spot, destroying its mighty buildings, praise be unto Him. Many thanks! Whilst the West continues with the abovementioned strategy—and follows the US model of action—exogenous actors will continue to perceive the West as an existential threat and their violent reactions will continue. To offer a perspective of terrorism, the Taliban was considered to be a terrorist group by the US only after Bin Laden, the self-prescribed leader of Al-Qaeda, ‘advised the Taliban to offer a [oil pipeline] contract to an Argentine firm … Unicol [a US firm] lost out. On one hand, some commentators classify it as warfare, in with the terrorist enjoying the same status and rights as any other POW.  Joseph Collins. In more contemporary times the political rhetoric, largely by Western politiciansâ have morphed terrorism into a more lethal dyad: the combination of being an asymmetrical- and an existential- threat. Notwithstanding the aforementioned and for the purpose of this essay the Enlightenment is 1685 – 1815. Existentialism is a Humanism.1945. Understanding Existentialism. With regard to individual actions terrorism has morphed beyond large group-think actions such as Baader-Meinhof Gang/Red Army Faction, to being more persuasive to the individuals, and it is here that the connection to existentialism is more erudite and easily made. E-IR is an independent non-profit publisher run by an all volunteer team. Edited by Glyn Taylor. The values, whether they be freedom, religion, manumission or a multitude of other precedents is not what is of interest here, as it is the act of violence and its motivations through the prism of existentialism that informs this essay. support open access publishing. In regard to ends, acts of terror are usually waged on behalf of a religion or ideology.  Emma Luxton. See: John Jenkins. The ongoing and consistent animosity toward the West by exogenous and non-state actors in the aforementioned clearly offers examples of the West being deemed an existential threat to their societies. To be an existentialist by necessity means to be a person that has and applies, an existentialist approach to situations. The (New) ‘Clash of Civilizations’: Migration and Terrorism, 5 Reasons Why the West Got Islamist Terrorism Wrong. It is the perceptions that lead to action that requires analysis and it is necessary to delve deeper into what is meant by the term ‘existential’; whether terrorism fulfills the requirements within the definition. 12. ‘Is terrorism in Europe at an historical high?’ World Economic Forum. Arizona State University. Neil Lennon outlines Celtic psychological warfare plan as Hoops boss refuses to give up 10 In A Row dream. There is and remains, however, in the complex narrative of terrorism, an alternate perspective of whether terrorists’ deem the West to be an existential threat.  David Cooper. ; France had been stating for months in 2012, that a West African military force should bring control to Mali. 14. The World has continued to battle with various forms of vulnerabilities issues, with several stakeholders coming up with solutions to the crisis. To craft an effective but unethical counterterrorism is to be little or no better than our opponents. This factor brings existentialism to the fore as the decision to die for a cause (theoretically) presents a willingness to make the ultimate and most intimate of personal decision-making, one which is free of logic and reasoning. Narco-terrorism is here understood as an integral component of Pakistanâs state-sponsorship of cross-border terrorism used so as to fund and conduct asymmetric warfare against its neighbours -foremost India- and achieve certain foreign policy goals,â points out Wolf. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2003, 359. Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Defending the U.S. Having a clear idea of what terrorism is will help us know how best to respond justly to the threat of terrorism towards innocent noncombatants.  See: ‘Existentialism.’ Dictionary.com/British Dictionary. The different types of asymmetric warfare are robustly associated. In regard to means, acts of terror involve the deliberate killing of noncombatants or harming of property to create a spirit of fear in order to gain leverage for attaining various goals. Algeria 1954 – 1962, 413. In the Twenty-first century it is a germane observation that the number of attacks appears to be on the increase and without doubt this is due to the news cycle and the immediacy with which an attack is reported. The other view is that asymmetric warfare does not coincide with terrorism. Thus, instead of locking in on a tight definition, Coates argues, we recognize terrorism’s complex and multi-faceted nature by studying it empirically and contextually, showing how the various aspects of terrorism relate to each other, impact each other, and come together as a whole. Terrorism is a form of asymmetric warfare, and is more common when direct conventional warfare will not be effective because forces vary greatly in power. Whilst both operations were aimed at regime change it can also be argued that they represent a strategic-foothold for the West in the Middle East which reflects its colonizing history and its inabilities to exercise comprehensive change beyond strategic necessity. bandwidth bills to ensure we keep our existing titles free to view. The recalcitrance referred to has inspired, and then drawn in many other actors. Encyclopedia of Terrorism. Terrorism: the new global threat. Currently, the term âterroristâ has, in many cases, overcome the rest of them. From a broader political perspective the existential threat the West represents—as a body-politic—is usually judged through the prism of political recognition, military-ties and economic benefits and the concomitant non-recognition that non-state actors may have valid claims regarding exploitative government- and economic-structures, and that repression and discrimination are present. Terrorism isn't Asymmetric warfare. Is Terrorism a Legitimate Response to Asymmetric Warfare? The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. It is one which moves it as an act, to beyond a rational decision to that of a personal one. Such threats include covert attacks by state actors, state use of proxies, independent terrorist and extremist attacks by foreign groups or individuals, and independent â¦ Asymmetric warfare encourages the use of non-traditional military tactics, used generally by the weaker force to balance out the power inequity. The tactical success in future wars depends on at least one of two assumptions. French President Hollande acted and sent troops to Mali in January, 2013—after the Malian Army had been surprised by Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb. Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentional violence for political or religious purposes. Recent examples of the West’s inept handling of crises are Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003). We must avoid responding in unjust ways if we wish to be effective in combating terrorism, winning the hearts and minds of the civilian population, and upholding the moral order of war to which we are committed. Homeland - Ebook written by Anthony H. Cordesman. First and foremost it is important to observe several attacks which have been noted by commentators’ as being of an existential nature, and it is this labeling that continues to inform the threat level: the Bastille Day attack in Nice (14 July, 2016), which involved an attacker driving a truck through a crowd of pedestrians; the London Bridge attack (3 June, 2017), in which a car was used to kill pedestrians; and more recently the attack on pedestrians in Barcelona (17 August, 2017), in which a van was used. How Do Just War Principles Apply to Terrorism & Asymmetrical Warfare? Consequently, the level of forced intervention by the West and the way in which operations are conducted without doubt promotes an understanding among the peoples of Afghanistan and Iraq that the West is an existential threat to their lands, religion, culture, tribe, kin, population and numerous other elements within their societies. To Fight or Not to Fight? Acknowledging that existentialism is a profoundly nuanced subject matter and one that encompasses many more aspects than those mentioned is a germane yet necessary observation to make. Terrorism in general usage means more than any one of the four previous categories. This article will also intertwine terrorism as a multi-faceted matter within societal and cultural boundaries and perspectives. Look at America—filled with terror from north to south, east to west—all praise be to Allah! âThe United States has now âweaponizedâ the term (terrorism) in pursuit of its foreign policy goals.  The definition of ‘Eurocentric’ is to view societies through the prism of European and Anglo-American definitions of the societies and the World.  Countries with deep-seated and ongoing domestic governance issues and internal frictions are many and the West, through the auspices of the United Nations, has done little in applying comprehensive pressure to bring about change—the Philippines, Israel, Nigeria, Mali and Saudi Arabia is to name only some that have within their societies long-term highly-fractious issues. 5. Notwithstanding these factors, attacks of this type have been used as strategic and tactical necessities by terrorists for many decades. All Rights Reserved | Site by Rootsy. Regardless of the way in which the West has approached interventionism and the terrorist threat inspired because of it, the fundamental strategy of interventionism remains ensconced in a flawed US model of action. ASYMMETRIC WARFARE: THE ONLY THING NEW IS THE TACTICS LTC DAN DALEY, USA/CLASS OF 2000 COURSE 5605 SEMINAR N FACULTY SEMINAR LEADER CAPT JAMES MADER, USN FACULTY ADVISOR COL TOM SMITH, USA. Yuval Harari argues that the peacefulness of modern states makes them paradoxically more vulnerable to terrorism than pre-modern states. The title âasymmetric warfareâ given to terrorism and guerilla warfare enables a scientific study of the phenomenon of terrorism, which has gripped the world since September 11, 2001. Have all new posts delivered straight to your inbox. Within this principled approach, the person—in this case a terrorist—embraces the notions and ‘… importance of personal experience and responsibility and the demands that they make in the individual who is seen as a free agent in a deterministic and seemingly meaningless universe’ An explanation of this is that a human—although Sartre refers to and uses, the gendered term ‘man’—, first exists encounters himself and emerges in the world, to be defined afterwards … It is man who conceives himself, who propels himself towards existence. The Ethics of Special Operations Warfighting. The Ethics of Special Operations Warfighting, Podcast: The Gospel of Marx: A False Religion Explained, 4 Key Ingredients in a Devotional Reading of Scripture, Top 10 Books for Defending the Faith in a Secular Age, Tony Dungy, Nick Foles, and the Emerging Trend of Christian-Shaming, 12 Books Every Pastor, Professor, or Student Should Read (about Christianity, Politics, & Public Life), Significantly, terrorists almost always fail the criteria of, Most significantly, terrorists flout the principle of, In addition to waging war abroad, we must engage in. https://www.hrw.org/news/2010/08/17/nigeria-corruption-fueling-police-abuses. See: ‘Enlightenment.’ History. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2005, 7. 1st Class Jeff Duran), especially in political forums and the news media, http://www.public.asu.edu/~jmlynch/273/documents/sartre-existentialism-squashed.pdf, https://www.hrw.org/tag/philippines-war-drugs, https://www.hrw.org/news/2010/08/17/nigeria-corruption-fueling-police-abuses, https://www.europeaninstitute.org/index.php/167-european-affairs/ea-january-2013/1683-mali-the-french-way-of-war, http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/02/12/why-did-we-fail-in-the-afghan-war-because-we-didnt-understand-the-place/, The Sovereign Nation-State as a Contributor to Terrorism. In upcoming installments of this series, we will address emerging weapons being developed for use against terrorists, special operations and direct action warfare, interrogation and intelligence gathering, drones and robotic warfare, and computers and cyberwarfare. War at the Top of the World. An introduction, guide and assessment. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in the context of war against non-combatants (mostly civilians and neutral military personnel). As the threat and actions of terrorists have become more focused, their outcomes have a greater impact on populaces of nation-states. 12 Feb, 2015. http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/02/12/why-did-we-fail-in-the-afghan-war-because-we-didnt-understand-the-place/. This has often fueled much of the recalcitrance toward Western societies, and is largely directed at the US and its closest allies.  See: M. Rajimanickam. 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